# Calculating Data with Excel

In order to calculate data on Heat Flux for the above activities, you need a Heat Flux calculator. The Alaska Lake Ice Observatory Network has developed such a calculator using Excel software. Two calculators are available below, one for snow data taken on frozen lakes, the other for snow data taken on the ground: Snow […]

# Calculating Heat Flux

Students in grades 3-12 can collect the data on snow and temperature needed for these calculations. Middle school and high school students can carry out the calculations needed to determine the conductive heat flow. Conductive heat flow (Fa) (also known as heat flux) is a function of: (a) snow temperature gradient (Ts–Tb/Zs); and (b) snow […]

# Heat Flux Through the Snow Cover

Re-read the earlier section on Heat Transfer, paying particular attention to the information on latent heat. Now we are going to examine how latent heat effects the formation of ice. And you (and your students) are going to learn how to measure the amount of heat that is transferred from the ground or the water […]

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