Insects Resources

Invertebrates as Indicators: From the EPA, this site includes detailed information and images about the use of aquatic invertebrates as indicators of water quality and environmental health.

North American Benthological Society: An international scientific organization whose purpose is to promote better understanding of the biotic communities of lake and stream bottoms and their role in aquatic ecosystems.

Northern Rockies Natural History Guide – Insects: From the University of Montana ECOS Program, the Natural History Guide includes a variety of information about insects and other topics geared for the K-12 level.


Hard-Copy Resources & Module References

Barbour, M.T.; J. Gerritsen; B.D. Snyder; and J.B. Stribling. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water, 1999.

Bilton, D. T.; J. R. Freeland; and B. Okamura. “Dispersal in freshwater invertebrates.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32 (2001): 159–181.

Borkent, A. “The distribution and habitat preferences of the Chaoboridae (Culicomorpha:Diptera) of the Holartic Region.” Canadian Journal of Zoology 59 (1981): 122-133.

Borror, D. J.; C. A. Triplehorn; and F. Johnson, eds. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1992.

Courtney, G.W. NBAW Aquatic Diptera Workshop (Powerpoint). June 2010.

Epler, J. H. Identification Manual for the larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina. EPA publication X984170-97, 2001.

Gelhaus, J.K. Manual for the Identification of Aquatic Crane Fly Larvae for North America. Salt Lake City, Utah: Prepared for the North American Benthological Society Workshop, 2008.

Hu, D.L.; B. Chan; JW.M. Bush. “The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion.” Nature 424 (2003): 663-666.

Illies, J. and L. Botosaneanu. “Problemes et methods de la classification et de la zonation ecologique des eaux courantes,considerees surtout du point de vue faunistique.” Mitt. Internat. Berein. Limnol. 12 (1963): 1-57.

Larson, D. J.; Y. Alarie; and R.E. Roughly. Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) of the Nearctic Region with Emphasis on the Fauna of Canada and Alaska Ottawa. NRC Research Press, 2000.

Merritt, R.W.; K.W. Cummins; M.B. Berg (editors). An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 4th ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2006.

Peckarsky, B.L.; A. R. McIntosh; C.C. Caudill; J.Dahl. “Swarming and mating behavior of a mayfly Baetis bicaudatus suggest stabilizing selection for male body size.” Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology 51 (2002): 530–537.

Pyke, C.R. “Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Vernal Pool Ecosystems and Endemic Branchiopods.” Ecosystems 8:1 (2005): 95-105.

Reidelbach, J. and E. Keil. “Observations on the behavioural sequences of looping and drifting by blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae)“. Aquatic Insects 12 (1990): 49-60.

Resh, V.H. Age structure aleteration in a caddisfly after habitat loss and recovery. Oikos 38 (1982): 380-384.

Resh V.H.  and D.M. Rosenberg (Eds). The Ecology of Aquatic Insects. New York: Praeger Scientific, 1984.

Sandberg, J.B.; and K.W. Stewart. “Continued studies of vibrational communication (Drumming) of North American Plecoptera.” ILLESIA 2:1 (2006): 1-14.

Sheldon, A.L. “Colonization curves: application to stream insects on semi-natural substrates.” Oikos 28 (1977): 256-61.

Stanford, J.A. and J.V. Ward. “An ecosystem perspective of alluvial rivers: connectivity and the hyporheic corridor.” Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 12:1 (1993): 48-60.

Steyskal, G.C. and Lloyd V. Knutson; and McAlpine, J.F.; B.V. Peterson; G.E. Shewell; H.J. Teskey; J.R. Vockeroth; D.M. Wood (eds). “Chapter 47: Empididae” in Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Research Branch Agriculture Canada Monograph no.27 (1981): 607-624.

Townsend, C.R. and A.G. Hildrew. “Field experiments on the drifting, colonization and continuous redistribution of stream benthos.” Journal of Animal Ecology 45 (1976): 759-72.

Vannote, R.L.; G.W. Minshall; K.W. Cummins; J.R. Sedell; and C.E. Cushing. “The river continuum concept.” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 37 (1980): 130-137.

Ward, J.V. Aquatic Insect Ecology 1. Biology and Habitat. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1992.

Williams, D.D. “Environmental constraints in temporary fresh waters and their consequences for the insect fauna.” Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15:4 (1996): 634-650.


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The MSP project is funded by an ESEA, Title II Part B Mathematics and Science Partnership Grant through the Montana Office of Public Instruction. MSP was developed by the Clark Fork Watershed Education Program and faculty from Montana Tech of The University of Montana and Montana State University, with support from other Montana University System Faculty.